Approach to Nephrotic Syndrome
Important Definitions for Nephrotic Syndrome Nephrotic Syndrome: It is characterized by nephrotic range proteinuria (>40mg/m2/hr), hypoalbuminemia (serum albumin <2.5gm/dl), hyperlipidemia (serum cholesterol >200mg/dl) and edema. Remission: Proteinuria <4mg/m2/hr OR urine albumin nil/trace for 3 consecutive early morning specimens. Relapse: Proteinuria >40mg/m2/hr OR urine albumin >3+ for 3 consecutive early morning specimens. Frequent Relapses: >2 relapses…
Staging The “International Neuroblastoma Staging System” (INSS) according to its anatomical presence at diagnosis: The new INRG risk assignment will classify neuroblastoma at diagnosis based on a new International Neuroblastoma Risk Group Staging System (INRGSS): Investigations : Screening : Urine catecholamine level, Urine vanillylmandelic acid (VMA) Imaging: Meta-iodobenzylguanidine scan, F-FDG-PET Scan Tissue Biopsy : Microscopy : small, round and…
Approach to Neonatal Cholestasis
The incidence of NC is ~1 in 2500 live births. Investigations: First Tier: Second Tier: Differntial Diagnosis: Management: In patients with advanced disease, insufficient hepatic synthetic function and hypovitaminosis, a vitamin K-dependent bleeding disorder may occur. should be initiated immediately. Associated Conditions with Bile Atresia: References:
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