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Severe Acute Malnutrition
Definition Severe acute malnutrition is defined by very low weight-for-height/length (Z-score below -3SD of the median WHO child growth standards), a mid-upper arm circumference <11.5 cm, or by the presence of nutritional oedema. Children who are severely wasted are 9 times more likely to die thanwell-nourished children. Criteria Hospital Admission Criteria Admission Criteria for <…
Approach to Pancytopenia
Criteria for Pamcytopenia Pancytopenia is a reduction in all three cellular components of the blood, namely, red blood cells (RBCs) and leucocytes (WBCs). The presentation is in the form of cytopenias leading to infections, anemia, or bleeding manifestations. In order to properly address every case of pancytopenia, there must be a thorough approach. so that…
Approach to Nephrotic Syndrome
Important Definitions for Nephrotic Syndrome Nephrotic Syndrome: It is characterized by nephrotic range proteinuria (>40mg/m2/hr), hypoalbuminemia (serum albumin <2.5gm/dl), hyperlipidemia (serum cholesterol >200mg/dl) and edema. Remission: Proteinuria <4mg/m2/hr OR urine albumin nil/trace for 3 consecutive early morning specimens. Relapse: Proteinuria >40mg/m2/hr OR urine albumin >3+ for 3 consecutive early morning specimens. Frequent Relapses: >2 relapses…
Staging The “International Neuroblastoma Staging System” (INSS) according to its anatomical presence at diagnosis: The new INRG risk assignment will classify neuroblastoma at diagnosis based on a new International Neuroblastoma Risk Group Staging System (INRGSS): Investigations : Screening : Urine catecholamine level, Urine vanillylmandelic acid (VMA) Imaging: Meta-iodobenzylguanidine scan, F-FDG-PET Scan Tissue Biopsy : Microscopy : small, round and…
Approach to Neonatal Cholestasis
The incidence of NC is ~1 in 2500 live births. Investigations: First Tier: Second Tier: Differntial Diagnosis: Management: In patients with advanced disease, insufficient hepatic synthetic function and hypovitaminosis, a vitamin K-dependent bleeding disorder may occur. should be initiated immediately. Associated Conditions with Bile Atresia: References:
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