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SEXUAL HEALTH

Over the last 25 years sexual health has become one of the most important areas of healthcare across the world a global pandemic of HIV, the rapid worldwide spread of other sexually transmitted infections and an increasing awareness of sexual health issues by the public globally have all increased enormously the needs of those dealing with sexual health problems to have access to information on theory and practice that can help them adverse the diversity of issues they now face  Miller and Green (2002). According to WHO, Sexual health is a state of complete physical, emotional, mental and social well-being related to sexuality; it is not merely the absence of disease, dysfunction or infirmity. Sexual health requires a positive and respectful approach to sexuality and sexual relationships, as well as the possibility of having pleasurable and safe sexual experiences, free of coercion, discrimination, and violence. For sexual health to be attained and maintained, the sexual rights of all persons must be respected, protected and fulfilled WHO (2002). This essay focuses to describe sexual health, the importance of sexual health promotion in teenagers, different levels of interventions, sexual health policies, theories and different sexual health strategies

 

According to formally family planning association sexual health defined as the capacity and freedom to enjoy and express sexuality without fear of exploitation, repression physical and emotional harm FPA (2007). Rising STI rates and increasing termination rates DH (2008) indicate there is now a real need to address both issues through progressive work in sexual health care. Indeed, the HPA (2008) highlighted a clear need for people to be aware of how they can protect themselves from unplanned pregnancy and STIs, and the importance Of these diseases. The UK has the worst sexual health record in Western Europe while the teenage pregnancy rates and sexually transmitted infections including HIV and sexual violence are increasing. So the importance of sexual health promotion is increasing among young men and women. The aim of this essay is to highlights the need to reduce sexually transmitted infections among teenagers both girls and boys DH (2010) .young people reflects concerns about unintended teenage pregnancies and sexually transmitted infections. Researches are showing that how being young influences sexual behavior exploring issues including teenage negotiation of contraception and the influence of gender and peer norms both the UK and internationally. High rates of sexually transmitted continue to be reported in India among young people, men who have sex with men and some ethnic minority populations these groups remain at greatest risk of infection Miles (2006). I choose the group teenagers (young men and young women) with the age group of 14 to 24for this. I selected the teenagers for this assignment because now the rate of teenage pregnancies, sexually transmitted infections, HIV and sexual violence is increasing in UK and India.

Problems with sexual health affect all sections of society including all age groups. Sexual ill health disproportionately affects vulnerable groups such as young people between the ages of 16 and 25, ethnic minority groups and those affected by poverty and social exclusion. (World Health Organization, 2004) Sexual health refers to the issues which impact on sexual function and reproduction. Such issues include physical, mental and emotional factors which may have a varying amount of impact on the individual, leading to disorders affecting physical, mental or emotional wellbeing.

 

Sexual ill-health may thus be defined as the consequence of such issues in terms of their effect(s) on the wellbeing of an individual. Serious complications with sexual health particularly affect women and gay men and there are disproportionate geographical inequalities in the rate and degree of sexual ill health and inequalities in sexual health service provision in the UK. For example, the results of a study focusing on syphilis reported that there have been increasingly high rates of disease transmission over the last five years in Britain, as well as in several parts of Western Europe. The report also stated that the most alarmingly high rates of syphilis prevalence have been seen in the wealthiest cities in England such as London. (NHS, 2008)

 

According to the Independent Advisory Group on Sexual Health and HIV, (2007) there are serious inequalities in sexual health service provision in the UK and the groups most likely to suffer because of this are identified as young people who are considering becoming sexually active, men who have sex with men and black and minority communities. The possible reasons for such inequalities are discussed further in detail, along with the importance of these issues being reprimanded and their effects reduced. The major causes of morbidity and mortality among young people are road traffic accidents, suicide, drug use (including cigarettes, cigars, and alcohol) and sexual and reproductive ill health. (World Health Organization, 2004) The consequences of poor sexual health have important implications for all individuals as well as society as a whole.

 

Unwanted pregnancies may have a long-lasting impact on the quality of both the mother’s and the child’s life. Since the International Conference on Population and Development in Cairo in 1994, recognition of young people’s specific sexual and reproductive health needs has gradually increased. Attempts to date to promote the sexual health of young people have tended to focus on prevention, education and counseling for those who are not yet sexually active, while the provision of health services to those who have already engaged in unprotected sexual activity and faced the consequences, including pregnancy, STIs or sexual violence has lagged behind.

 

The identification of this matter has lead to a shift in focus on sexual health and motivation towards the promotion of services available to people in the UK. In 2004, the World Health Organization (WHO) launched an activity to promote sexual health and a positive view of sexuality for young women and men as issues to be addressed separately from the wider subject of reproductive health. In the past, but particularly since the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development, sexual health was defined as an incorporation of the subject of reproductive health. The launch of this activity was the direct result of the emergence of the pandemic of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, increasing rates of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and an increasing awareness of the importance of gender-related violence and sexual dysfunction concerns. Such changes in sexual health have emphasized the need for more explicit focus on issues related to sexuality and the direct implications for general health and wellbeing.

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