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Ballistics ( firearm injuries )

Definition-“It is the science of projectile motion and conditions affecting that motion


(1) BARREL(hollow metal cylinder) – rear end : breach(bullets are loaded here) front end : muzzle(bullets come out here) bore( lumen of the barrel)

(2) ACTION – trigger-> bolt -> striker/hammer

(3)BUTT – rear portion(behind the barrel/stock) of a shoulder arm, bottom of a handgun(containing magazine)

(4)MAGAZINE – holder for cartridges, acting as a receptacle for automatic weapons(from which cartridges are automatically loaded)

Muzzle velocity vs. Impact velocity : speed at which bullet leaves the barrel vs. speed of bullet at point of contact.


(1) RIFLED : The bore internally is grooved(4,5,6 common) running parallel & twisted from breech to muzzle end.”Clockwise and anti-clockwise rifling”. Rifling gives bullet rotation/ gyroscopic stability. Improves both range, accuracy and impact power.

(2) SMOOTH BORE/SHOTGUNS : No rifling, barrel is uniformly smooth. Barrel divided into three sections (chamber, forcing cone and bore)

(3)PARADOX GUNS : Smooth at rear, rifled near the muzzle end.

(4)CARBINES : Both hands are required to hold the weapon. Eg. AK-47

CHOKING – Normal(cylinder bore) barrel of uniform diameter. Choke bore is a barrel that is slightly constricted at muzzle end(7-10 cm) -> full, modified, improved cylinder & cylinder (DEGREES OF CHOKE) ADVANTAGE : (a)Lessens rate of spread of shot (b) increase explosive force(the propellent gases are compressed at muzzle end-> increasing pressure-> increasing kinetic energy of the pellets) (c) improved velocity -> range

ZIP GUNS : Country made crude guns

STUD GUNS : Industrial guns to fire metal studs into wood, steel, concrete etc.

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