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This article is regarding one of the most common emerging diseases among young children “ADHD”.



ADHD- Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder


ADHD Is a disorder of brain marked by an ongoing pattern of hyperactivity and inattention that interferes with functioning or development. It is the most commonly diagnosed mental disorder in children as it affects children teens and can continue into adulthood. Usually, children with ADHD are unable to control Their impulses and turn out to be hyperactive, pay less attention and such events end up affecting their academics and personal life.




Inattention means when a person wanders off task, lacks persistence, has difficulty in focusing, and is disorganized.


Hyperactive means a person seems to move constantly, including in situations in which it is not needed. In adults, it may be extreme restlessness or wandering around always.


Impulsivity means a person makes hasty actions that occur at the moment without first thinking about them. Having a desire for immediate rewards or an inability to delay gratification. An impulsive person may be socially intrusive and excessively interrupt others or make important decisions without considering the long-term consequences.


Risk factors


It is still unknown what causes ADHD, but there are many factors that can contribute to ADHD, such as:



  1. Smoking, drinking alcohol or exposure to the drug during pregnancy


  1. Exposure to environmental toxins during pregnancy


  1. Exposure to environmental toxins, such as high levels of lead, at a young age


  1. Low Birth Weight


  1. Heredity


  1. Brain injuries- Brain chemicals alterations.


  1. ADHD is more common in males than females, and females with ADHD are more likely to have problems primarily with inattention.


  1. Other conditions, such as learning disabilities, anxiety disorder, conduct disorder, depression, and substance abuse, are common in people with ADHD.


Signs and Symptoms


Symptoms among children are grouped into three categories


  1. Inattention-


  1. Getting easily distracted
  2. Unable follow directions or finish tasks, lack of attention
  3. Forgets about daily activities,
  4. Has problems organizing daily tasks
  5. Doesn’t like to do things that require sitting still
  6. Often loses things
  7. Tends to daydream



    1. Unable to sit idle at a place
    2. Always too loud
    3. Always on the move and restless.
    4. Very talkative


    1. Very impulsive
    2. Blurts abruptly
    3. Interrupts others while talking/ activities.


Symptoms in adults may change as a person gets older.

This includes:-

  1. Always late and forgets everything
  2. Anxiety
  3. Low self-esteem
  4. Problems at work
  5. Trouble controlling anger
  6. Impulsiveness
  7. Substance abuse or addiction
  8. Unorganized
  9. Procrastination
  • Easily frustrated
  • Chronic boredom
  1. Lack of concentrating when reading
  • Mood swings
  • Depression
  • Relationship problems




ADHD can’t be prevented or cured. But discovering it early, plus having a good treatment and education plan, can help a child or adult with ADHD manage their symptoms


Many symptoms of ADHD can be managed with medication and therapy.



Medications called stimulants can help control hyperactive and impulsive behavior and increase attention span.

They include:

  1. Dextroamphetamine
  2. Lisdexamfetamine
  3. Methylphenidate
  4. Dexmethylphenidate
  5. Stimulant medications don’t work for everyone with ADHD. Nonstimulant medications may be prescribed for people older than 6years.
  6. Dietary supplements with omega 3s have shown some benefit.



These treatments focus on changing behavior.

  1. Special education helps a child learn at school. Having structure and a routine helps children with ADHD a lot.
  2. Behavior modification teaches ways to replace bad behaviors with good ones.
  3. Psychotherapy (counseling) can help someone with ADHD learn better ways to handle their emotions and frustration. It can also help improve their self-esteem. Counseling may also help family members better understand the child or adult with ADHD.
  4. Social skills training can teach behaviors, such as taking turns and sharing.
  5. Support groups of people with similar problems and needs can help with acceptance and support.



Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is a neglected issue in the developing world. Early the detection better is the prognosis.


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